Home

News

Recent changes:

  • The ATB has been recently update, details on the changes from version 1.2 are available here.
  • Due to minor changes to the ATBs bonded parameter assignment, the GROMOS parameter files generated by the ATB (IFP files) have been updated.
    Topologies generated previously are not compatible with the latest IFP file and vice versa.
    GROMACS compatible files are unaffected.
  • Version 2.1 updates include: greater pipeline stability, improved atom ordering, and minor changes to bonded parameter assignment.

ATB 2.0 validation study:

  • Koziara KB, Stroet M, Malde AK, Mark AE.
    Testing and validation of the Automated Topology Builder (ATB) version 2.0: prediction of hydration free enthalpies.
    Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, 2014.
    DOI:10.1007/s10822-014-9713-7

The improved charge group assignment used for 2.0 topologies is described in:

  • Canzar S, El-Kebir M, Pool R, Elbassioni K, Malde AK, Mark AE, Geerke DP, Stougie L, Klau GW.
    Charge Group Partitioning in Biomolecular Simulation.
    Journal of Computational Biology, 2013, 20, 188-198.
    DOI:10.1089/cmb.2012.0239

The ATB paper is now available:

  • Malde AK, Zuo L, Breeze M, Stroet M, Poger D, Nair PC, Oostenbrink C, Mark AE.
    An Automated force field Topology Builder (ATB) and repository: version 1.0.
    Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2011, 7(12), 4026-4037.
    DOI: 10.1021/ct200196m

Latest ATB forcefield files

GROMOS 54A7 IFP files with additions from the ATB:

GROMOS 53A6 IFP files with additions from the ATB:

Overview

The ATB and Repository is intended to facilitate the development of molecular force fields for Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations of biomolecular systems. Applications include:

  • The study of biomolecule:ligand complexes
  • Free energy calculations
  • Structure-based drug design
  • The refinement of x-ray crystal complexes

This site provides:

  • A repository for building blocks and interaction parameter files for molecules described using GROMOS force fields.
  • An automated builder to help generate building blocks for novel molecules, compatible with the GROMOS 53A6 force field and in formats appropriate for the GROMACS, GROMOS simulation packages and CNS, Phenix, CCP4 and Refmac5 X-ray refinement packages.
  • Refined geometries for molecules within the repository.
  • Equilibrated starting coordinates for a range of biologically important systems.

Getting started

See the FAQ page to get started.

Tutorials for common tasks on the ATB are currently being developed, the first of which is available here: How to View an Existing Molecule

Disclaimer
While every effort has been made to provide reliable estimates of the parameters including where appropriate alternative choices of parameters, these are intended as a guide. The user should carefully examine all files before use and the suitability of the parameters provided for any specific application cannot be guaranteed.

Submit

If you have previously submitted a molecule with ATB, but have not received a password,please go here to generate a password.


  You must be registered and logged in to submit a molecule! Please either login or register.

Existing Molecules

Overall Statistics
Molecule TypeManual (Highly Trusted) Manual ATB
amino acid 1 204 223
amino acid building block 60 205 0
heteromolecule 61 13 11666
lipid 56 6 264
nucleic acid 0 1 24
solvent 8 0 73
sugar 14 0 210
sugar building block 3 0 0

Total molecules: 13092
Search
Search string*:
Molecule type:
Curation:
* The search string is matched to IUPAC Name,
  Common Name/Description, Residue Name,
  Formula and Canonical SMILES
Selected Molecules (13149)
Page: of 132
Display:
Molecule ID Formula IUPAC Name Common Name/Description Atoms Charge Forcefield Submission Date FilesCuration
23294 C28H22O6 5-[(2S,3S)-5-[(E)-2-(3,5-dioxi ... sasdf 56 0 multiple 2015-01-31 Link ATB
23293 C28H22O6 5-[(2R,3R)-5-[(E)-2-(3,5-dioxi ... rasdf 56 0 multiple 2015-01-31 Link ATB
23292 C25H29N3O3S (2S)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-[(4 ... 61 0 multiple 2015-01-30 Link ATB
23291 C25H29N3O3S (2R)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-3-[(4 ... 61 0 multiple 2015-01-30 Link ATB
23290 C25H29N3O3S (2S)-2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-[(4 ... 61 0 multiple 2015-01-30 Link ATB
23289 C24H28N4O4S (2S)-2-[4-(dihydroxyamino)phen ... 61 0 multiple 2015-01-30 Link ATB
23288 C24H28N4O4S (2R)-2-[3-(dihydroxyamino)phen ... 61 0 multiple 2015-01-30 Link ATB
23287 C24H28N4O4S (2R)-2-[2-(dihydroxyamino)phen ... 61 0 multiple 2015-01-30 Link ATB
23286 C28H22O6 5-[(2S,3S)-5-[(E)-2-(3,5-dioxi ... SS 56 0 multiple 2015-01-30 Link ATB
23285 C28H22O6 5-[(2R,3R)-5-[(E)-2-(3,5-dioxi ... RR 56 0 multiple 2015-01-30 Link ATB
18292 C26H29NO (2-{4-[(1Z)-1,2-diphenylbut-1- ... TAM 57 0 multiple 2015-01-30 Link ATB
23284 C9H5ClN4 N-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-cyanometh ... UNK 19 0 multiple 2015-01-30 Link Partial
23283 C17H12N2 3-(anthracen-9-yl)-1H-pyrazole 31 0 multiple 2015-01-30 Link Partial
23280 C24H26ClN3O2S (2S)-2-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-[(4S ... 57 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23279 C24H26ClN3O2S (2S)-2-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-[(4S ... 57 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23278 C24H26ClN3O2S (2S)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-3-[(4S ... 57 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23277 C24H26FN3O2S (2S)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-[(4S ... 57 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23276 C24H26FN3O2S (2S)-2-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-[(4S ... 57 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23275 C4H12N5 2-[amino(dimethylamino)methyli ... topology 21 1 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23274 C8H18 octane 26 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23273 C7H16 heptane octane 23 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
18374 C13H8O2 9H-xanthen-9-one XTH 23 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23272 C15H24 (5R)-2-methyl-5-[(2S)-6-methyl ... 39 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23269 C27H46O4S [(1S,2S,5S,10R,11S,14R,15S)-2, ... sulfato 78 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23263 C24H26FN3O2S (2S)-2-(2-fluorophenyl)-3-[(4S ... 57 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23262 C24H48O2 tetracosanoic acid c24 74 0 multiple 2015-01-29 Link ATB
23258 C34H24N6O2 1-N,4-N-bis[4-(1H-1,3-benzodia ... site1 46 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link Partial
23257 C7H14N2O2 (2S)-N-methyl-2-(N-methylaceta ... 25 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link ATB
23255 C9H4O (6S)-6-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)cyclohe ... Quercetin 10 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link ATB
23252 C39H70N6O11 (3S)-3-{2-[(3R,7R,11S,15R,19R) ... hexapeptide 126 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link ATB
23251 C127H244O47 (7S,9E,57R,105E,108S)-7,108-di ... cremophor EL 418 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link ATB
23250 C36H60N12O12 (3R,6S,9R,12S,15R,18S,21R,24S, ... 120 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link ATB
23249 C284H52N4O8 (4-{74,218,244-tris[4-(dihydro ... nanotube_4-func 340 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link Partial
23247 C4H3FN2O2 5-fluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyr ... FUR 12 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link ATB
23246 H3O4P trihydroxy(oxo)-λ4-phospha ... PO4 5 -3 multiple 2015-01-28 Link ATB
23245 C4H3ClN2O2 5-chloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyr ... CLU 12 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link ATB
23243 C2H7PS2 bis(methylsulfanyl)phosphane 12 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link ATB
23242 C5H9N2PS 4-methyl-1-[(methylsulfanyl)ph ... 18 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link ATB
23241 C30H62 (6R,10S,15R,19S)-2,6,10,15,19, ... Squalane 92 0 multiple 2015-01-28 Link ATB
23239 C8H15NO6 N-[(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2,4,5-trih ... alpha-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 30 0 multiple 2015-01-27 Link ATB
23238 C28H22O6 5-[(2R,3R)-5-[(E)-2-(3,5-dioxi ... RR 56 0 multiple 2015-01-27 Link ATB
23237 C28H22O6 5-[(2S,3S)-5-[(E)-2-(3,5-dioxi ... SS 56 0 multiple 2015-01-27 Link ATB
23236 C56H110N19O18 202 4 multiple 2015-01-27 Link ATB
23230 C34H24N6O2 1-N,4-N-bis[4-(1H-1,3-benzodia ... Hetatm 46 0 multiple 2015-01-27 Link Partial
23229 C12H10N2S 4-[(E)-2-phenyldiazen-1-yl]ben ... 25 0 multiple 2015-01-27 Link ATB
23225 C24H20N2S 4-{4-[2-(4-phenylphenyl)hydraz ... 45 0 multiple 2015-01-27 Link ATB
23224 C4H12N tetramethylamine 17 1 multiple 2015-01-27 Link ATB
23223 C20H16NO4 BBR 41 1 multiple 2015-01-27 Link ATB
23218 C33H38S2 2-[9,9-dihexyl-7-(thiophen-2-y ... 2,7-Di(2-thienyl)-9,9-dihexylf ... 73 0 multiple 2015-01-27 Link ATB
23214 C11H23NO3 2-(2-{[(S)-cyclohexyl(hydroxy) ... O3 38 0 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
23213 C9H17NO2 N-(2-hydroxyethyl)cyclohexanec ... n-(2-hydroxyethyl)cyclohexanec ... 29 0 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
23212 C7H13NO cyclohexanecarboxamide CYCLOHEXANECARBOXAMIDE 22 0 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
23211 C17H16N4O2S (6S)-3,6-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)- ... 90 40 0 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
23209 C25H29N5O2 2-methoxy-3-[3-(4-methylpipera ... 61 2 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
22054 C9H12O 2-propylbenzen-1-olate 22 0 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
23208 C9H12O 2-propylbenzen-1-olate 22 0 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
23207 C25H29NO7 8-({[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)meth ... phanipharma2 63 -1 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
23203 C24H25NO7 8-{[(2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylme ... phanipharma1 58 -3 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
23200 C17H19ClN5 6-(6-chloro-1H-1,3-benzodiazol ... cpd6 42 1 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
23198 C12H12N2S 4-(2-phenylhydrazin-1-yl)benze ... 25 0 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
23197 C12H10N2 (E)-diphenyldiazene 24 0 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
16185 C12H10N2 (E)-diphenyldiazene 24 0 multiple 2015-01-26 Link ATB
20915 C10H22 decane PE 32 0 multiple 2015-01-25 Link ATB
21028 C16H34 hexadecane Hexadecano 50 0 multiple 2015-01-25 Link ATB
23196 C21H20O6 2-methoxy-4-[(1E,6E)-7-(3-meth ... curcumin 47 0 multiple 2015-01-25 Link ATB
23195 C49H34O2P2 2,7-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)-9, ... sppo13 87 0 multiple 2015-01-24 Link ATB
23190 C15H10O7 2-(3,4-dioxidophenyl)-4-oxo-4H ... 32 0 multiple 2015-01-24 Link ATB
23187 C44H38N8 2,7,12,17-tetrakis(1-methylpyr ... clay-porphyrin 90 4 multiple 2015-01-24 Link ATB
23186 C38H75NO3 N-[(2S,3R,4E)-1,3-dihydroxytet ... ceramida2 117 0 multiple 2015-01-24 Link ATB
23185 C18H36O2 octadecanoic acid c18 56 0 multiple 2015-01-24 Link ATB
21869 C57H110O6 1,3-bis(octadecanoyloxy)propan ... tris 173 0 multiple 2015-01-23 Link ATB
23183 C21H42O3 (2R)-3-[(9Z)-octadec-9-en-1-yl ... 1GMO 66 0 multiple 2015-01-23 Link ATB
23182 C24H18FNO4 N-[(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-2-[ ... phani complex 2 48 0 multiple 2015-01-23 Link ATB
23180 C27H22N2O4 2-{4,9-dimethyl-7-oxo-3-phenyl ... phanimolecule1 55 -2 multiple 2015-01-23 Link ATB
23178 C30H30Cl2N4O4 4-{[(4S,5R)-4,5-bis(4-chloroph ... N3A 70 0 multiple 2015-01-23 Link ATB
23177 C12H22O11 (2R,3S,4S,5R,6R)-2-(hydroxymet ... trehelose_final 45 0 multiple 2015-01-23 Link ATB
23176 C78H152O3 (2R)-2-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-12-[(1S ... alpha_MA_final 233 0 multiple 2015-01-23 Link ATB
23175 C85H138O69 (2S,3S,4S,5R)-2-{[(2S,3S,4R,5R ... AG-complex_final 292 0 multiple 2015-01-23 Link ATB
23173 C47H70N10O11 138 0 multiple 2015-01-23 Link ATB
23167 C21H30N3O (4-{4-[(E)-2-(4-ethylphenyl)di ... 55 1 multiple 2015-01-22 Link ATB
23165 C27H34N9O15P2 {[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H- ... FAD 86 0 multiple 2015-01-22 Link ATB
23163 C9H5ClN4 N-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-cyanometh ... CCCP 19 0 multiple 2015-01-22 Link ATB
23162 C21H21N7O17P3 {[2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-5- ... nap_7584 64 0 multiple 2015-01-22 Link ATB
23161 C21H21N7O17P3 {[2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-5- ... nap_7583 64 0 multiple 2015-01-22 Link ATB
23160 C21H44N 1-hexadecyl-1-methyl-1λ4-p ... 66 1 multiple 2015-01-22 Link ATB
15608 C2H6O 9 0 multiple 2015-01-22 Link ATB
23159 C21H21N7O17P3 {[2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-5- ... nap_19796 64 0 multiple 2015-01-22 Link ATB
23158 C21H21N7O17P3 {[2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-5- ... nap_7549 64 0 multiple 2015-01-22 Link ATB
23154 C28H38O6 (1S,2S,4S,5R,10R,11S,14S,15S,1 ... Ashwagandha 72 0 multiple 2015-01-21 Link ATB
23153 C76H50N3O32 humic acid 158 -2 multiple 2015-01-21 Link ATB
23146 C36H49N5O8S PBC_bound 94 -1 multiple 2015-01-21 Link ATB
23145 C56H70N.H (4S,8R,23R,24S)-4-ethyl-8,23,2 ... mullins2012 128 0 multiple 2015-01-21 Link ATB
23141 C17H24N2O7 (2S)-2-acetamido-3-phenyl-N-[( ... MSopt 50 0 multiple 2015-01-20 Link ATB
23140 C19H20N2O4 4-hydroxybutyl N-{4-[(4-isocya ... Polyurethane (n=0) with Monome ... 45 0 multiple 2015-01-20 Link ATB
23139 C17H24N2O7 (2S)-2-acetamido-3-phenyl-N-[( ... mol1_mimmo 50 0 multiple 2015-01-20 Link ATB
23138 C23H28N2O8 benzyl N-[(1S)-2-phenyl-1-{[(2 ... mol2_mimmo 61 0 multiple 2015-01-20 Link ATB
23136 C35H46 (4E,6E,8E,10E,12E,14E,16E,18E, ... carseasy 81 0 multiple 2015-01-20 Link ATB
23135 C33H30N2O5 Fmoc 69 -1 multiple 2015-01-20 Link ATB
23127 C77H142O14 hepta(10-undecenoate) 226 -7 multiple 2015-01-20 Link ATB
23126 C77H142O14 (12R,14R,16S,19S,21S)-12,14,16 ... hepta(10-undecenoic acid) 233 0 multiple 2015-01-20 Link ATB
<< previous page
next page >>

Pre-Equilibrated Systems

Pre-Equilibrated Systems in Various Phases

NameDescriptionTemperature (K) Pressure (Bar)Equilibration time (ns)Time step (ps) ProgramBoxReference
512 methanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 ethanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 ethane amine Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 ethane-1,2-diamine Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 diethylamine Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
343 diethylether Rectangular box; 343 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 butylamine Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 2-propanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 aceton Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 acetic acid Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 methyl ethyl ester Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 N-methylacetamide Rectangular box; 512 molecules 301.0 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 ethyl acetate Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 3-pentanon Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
343 toluene Rectangular box; 343 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 propyl acetate Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 ethylpropanoate Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 ethylbutanoate Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 butyl acetate Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 ethyl glycol dipropanoate Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 glycerol tripropanoate Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 Cyclohexane Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 GROMOS96 Link Link
DLPC bilayer Hydrated 128-DLPC bilayer 303.0 1.0 350.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.2.1 Link Link
DLPC bilayer Hydrated 128-DLPC bilayer 303.0 1.0 350.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.2.1 Link Link
DMPC bilayer Hydrated 128-DMPC bilayer 303.0 1.0 235.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.2.1 Link Link
DOPC bilayer Hydrated 128-DOPC bilayer 303.0 1.0 300.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.2.1 Link Link
POPC bilayer Hydrated 128-POPC bilayer 303.0 1.0 250.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.2.1 Link Link
DPPC bilayer Hydrated 128-DPPC bilayer 323.0 1.0 190.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.2.1 Link Link
50 Perc Vol TFE TFE and water volume 1:1, mola ... 0.0 1.0 2.0 0.0 GROMACS 3.3.3 mdrun Link See page
DPC micelle DPC micelle composed of 56 lip ... 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 GROMACS 3.3.3 mdrun Link See page
1000 Chloroform Rectangular box; 1000 molecule ... 0.0 1.013 3.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
1000 Methanol Rectangular box; 1000 molecule ... 0.0 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
1000 Carbon tetrachloride Rectangular box; 1000 molecule ... 0.0 1.013 5.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
1024 DMSO Rectangular box; 1024 molecule ... 0.0 1.013 1.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 Dimethylether Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 2-methyl-2-butanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 2-methyl-2-propanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 cyclohexanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 octanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 heptanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 2-butanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 2-pentanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 3-pentanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 hexanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 pentanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 butanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 (2-propanol) Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 (1-propanol) Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 ethanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
512 methanol Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 2.0 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
DPPC bilayer Hydrated 128-DPPC bilayer 350.0 1.0 100.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
DPPC bilayer 128-DPPC bilayer in 2.5 mol. % ... 350.0 1.0 300.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
DPPC bilayer 128-DPPC bilayer in 5.0 mol. % ... 350.0 1.0 300.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
DPPC bilayer 128-DPPC bilayer in 10.0 mol. ... 350.0 1.0 300.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
DPPC bilayer 128-DPPC bilayer in 12.5 mol. ... 350.0 1.0 300.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
DOPC Hydrated 128-DOPC bilayer 350.0 1.0 100.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
DOPC bilayer 128-DOPC bilayer in 2.5 mol. % ... 350.0 1.0 300.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
DOPC bilayer 128-DOPC bilayer in 5.0 mol. % ... 350.0 1.0 300.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
DOPC bilayer 128-DOPC bilayer in 10.0 mol. ... 350.0 1.0 300.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
DOPC bilayer 128-DOPC bilayer in 12.5 mol. ... 350.0 1.0 300.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
DOPC bilayer 128-DOPC bilayer in 15.0 mol. ... 350.0 1.0 300.0 0.002 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
Membrane-embedded P-glycoprote ... central P-gp structure from 30 ... 300.0 1.0 300.0 0.004 gromacs 3.3.3 mdrun Link Link
P-gp with NCP, ATP in a Choles ... P-gp with NCP, ATP in a Choles ... 0.0 1.0 5.0 0.004 gromacs 3.3.3 mdrun Link See page
512 acetone Rectangular box; 512 molecules 298.15 1.013 0.5 0.002 gromos96 Link Link
Vancomycin and lipid II forms ... Vancomycin spontenoursly attac ... 298.0 1.0 50.0 4.0 GROMACS 4.0.2 Link Link
ATP-bound P-gp inward facing, ... P-gp with Mg2+ and ATP in a PO ... 300.0 1.0 10.0 0.004 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link Link
Membrane-embedded P-gp with AT ... P-gp with Mg2+ and ATP in a PO ... 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
ATP-bound P-gp asymmetric memb ... P-gp with Mg2+ and ATP in a PO ... 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
ATP-bound P-gp asymmetric memb ... P-gp with Mg2+ and ATP in a PO ... 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 GROMACS 3.3.3 Link See page
Lipid II in POPC membrane System contain 3 lipid II and ... 310.0 1.0 10.0 4.0 GROMACS 4.0.7 Link Link

GROMOS Forcefield Files

The GROMOS Force Field Files

A draft description of the GROMOS force field by the IGC group at ETH, Zurich is given here. The literature reference for the GROMOS 53A6 force field is here.

GROMOS 53A6 IFP files with additions from the ATB
GROMOS11 54a7 ATB.ifp
GROMOS11 53a6 ATB.ifp
GROMOS96 ifp54a7 ATB.dat
GROMOS96 ifp53a6 ATB.dat

Additional GROMOS forcefield files can be found here.

GROMACS Files
GROMOS FF for the GROMACS program
GROMOS54A7_for_Gromacs_3.x_4.0.x.tar.gz GROMOS54A7_for_Gromacs_4.5.x.tar.gz

GROMACS v-site bug fix for S-H: GROMOS54A7_for_Gromacs_3.x_4.0.x.tgz

GROMOS Manual Preview Chapters
Preview - Manual (Vol. 2) - General Algorithms and Formulae
Preview - Manual (Vol. 3) - Force Field and Topology Data Set
Preview - Manual (Vol. 4) - Data Structures and Formats
Preview - Manual (Vol. 5) - Program Library Manual
Preview - Manual (Vol. 6) - GROMOS Technical Details

Validation

Automated Topology Builder Validation Statistics

Automated Topology Builder Validation Statistics

Automated Topology Builder version 2.0 is validated against structural and thermodynamical data. Validation against root-mean-square deviation and hydration free energies was performed.

Root Mean Square Deviation

In vacuum

As an initial validation of the topologies and parameters generated by the ATB 2.0, each molecule was energy minimized in vacuum and the resulting structure was compared to that obtained after Quantum Mechanical (QM) optimization in implicit solvent (water) at the B3LYP/6-31G* level (≤ 50 atoms) or at the HF/STO-3G level of theory (>50 atoms) using GAMESS-US [1].

An analysis of the root mean square deviation (RMSD) after performing a least squares fit on all atoms for a total of 3310 molecules in the database on the 1-3-2013 is presented below. The number of atoms in the molecules varied from 4 to 659. The molecular weights ranged from 17 to 4453 atomic units. The molecules considered contained carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulphur, phosphorus, nitrogen and halogens (chlorine, bromide, fluorine) and included amino acids, heteromolecules, lipids, nucleic acids, solvents and sugars. RMSD values range from 0.0 to 0.09 nm.

Fig.1. Distribution of RMSD values between QM and energy minimized structures in vacuum.

From the distribution of values in Fig.1, it can be seen that 50% of molecules have an RMSD value below 0.01 nm and almost 95% have an RMSD value below 0.03 nm. Overall the agreement between the QM optimized structures and the energy minimized structures using the ATB parameters is very good which suggests that the geometry of the molecules is well maintained.

In water

To further validate the topologies a test set consisting of 178 heteromolecules was simulated for 200 ps in SPC [2] water at 300K and at 1 atm using the GROMOS11 [3] Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation package. An analysis of the RMSD of the final structure from the simulations with respect to the structure optimised quantum mechanically was calculated after performing a least squares fit on all atoms. The number of atoms in the molecules varied from 6 to 40. The molecular weights ranged from 28 to 410 atomic units. Again, the molecules considered contained carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus, nitrogen and halogens (chlorine, bromide, fluorine). The topologies were generated on the 1-3-2013 using the ATB version 2.0

From the distribution of values shown in Fig.2 it can be seen that 50% of molecules have an RMSD value ≤ 0.1 nm with ~95% having an RMSD value ≤ 0.2 nm. Note, these values correspond to a single configuration taken at the end of the simulation. The RMSD values therefore reflect fluctuations due to thermal motion at 300K including the effects of dihedral transitions. The test set included a number of highly flexible and/or hydrophobic molecules such as long aliphatic chains. This explained why a small proportion of molecules show large deviations from the QM optimised structures when simulated in water.


Fig.2. Percentage distribution of RMSD values for 178 molecules (MD)

Hydration Free Energies

The ability of the force field descriptions generated by the ATB 2.0 to reproduce the thermodynamic properties of a range of molecules has also been examined[4]. Specifically, the topologies generated by the ATB have been used to estimate the free energy of hydration of 214 diverse molecules:

  • 75 small organic molecules containing one biologically relevant functional group.
  • 92 chemically diverse drug (or drug-like) molecules taken from the Statistical Assessment of the Modelling of Proteins and Ligands (SAMPL) challenges (SAMPL0, SAMPL1, SAMPL2)[5-7].
  • 47 drug-like molecules from the recent SAMPL4 challenge.

The free energies of hydration were calculated using thermodynamic integration as implemented in the GROMOS11[3] package using a fully automated protocol that incorporates a dynamic analysis of the convergence and integration error in the selected intermediate points[4].

The results for all 214 molecules are presented graphically in Fig. 3, which shows a plot of the values calculated using parameters generated by the ATB version 2.0 based on the GROMOS 53A6[8] united atom (UA) force field versus the experimental values. As can be seen in Fig. 3 the points lay equality distributed about a line corresponding to a one-to-one agreement between the calculated and experimental values. For the UA topologies the average error (AE) was 0.29 kJ/mol, the root mean square error (RMSE) was 9.49 kJ/mol, the average unsigned error (AUE) was 6.71 kJ/mol, the Kendall tau statistic (Tau) was 0.75, the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) was 0.91 and the slope of a line of best fit using linear regression was 1.12. The statistics for the SAMPL4 molecules were similar to that obtained for the whole data set.


Fig. 3. Hydration free energies for a test set of 214 molecules calculated using parameters generated by the ATB 2.0. The 167 molecules, which had been used to test previous version of the ATB, are shown as blue crosses while the SAMPL4 molecules are indicated by yellow triangles. The solid line has a slope of one and represents a one-to-one agreement between the calculated and experimental numbers. The two dotted lines represent a 5 kJ/mol deviation from the ideal line.



A subset of 75 small organic molecules consisting of alcohols, alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alkyl benzenes, amines, amides, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, esters, ketones, thiols and sulphides was used as an initial test of the ATB parameters. The AUE for these molecules was 3.37 kJ/mol and 77% of the molecules lay within 5 kJ/mol of the experimental value. The largest deviation from experiment was 8.5 kJ/mol. What is clear from this result is that while the ATB parameters perform well for the majority of molecules, certain functional groups lead to systematic deviations from experiment (Fig. 4).


Fig. 4. Hydration free energies for 75 small organic molecules calculated using parameters generated by the ATB 2.0. The solid line has a slope of one and represents a one-to-one agreement between the calculated and experimental numbers. The two dotted lines represent a 5 kJ/mol deviation from the ideal line.



Of the set of 167 molecules, 92 were taken from previous SAMPL challenges. The AUE for molecules in the SAMPL0, SAMPL1 and SAMPL2 data sets were 7.2 kJ/mol, 9.6 kJ/mol and 8.5 kJ/mol respectively. While approximately 40% still lay within 5 kJ/mol of the experimental value the largest deviation from experiment was 42 kJ/mol. This is in part a reflection of the uncertainty in the experimental hydration free energies of molecules contained in SAMPL challenges (which were as large as 8 kJ/mol) and in part a reflection of the fact that these molecules contained a range of functional groups not commonly found in biomolecular systems.


Summary

The ATB 2.0 parameters were validated against structural data such as root mean square deviation and thermodynamic data such as hydration free energies:

  • Structural validation has shown good overall agreement between the QM optimized structures and the energy minimized structures using the ATB parameters.
  • The agreement between the predicted and experimental hydration free energies for the majority of molecules investigated is good.
  • The average unsigned-error (AUE) using ATB 2.0 topologies for the complete test set is 6-7 kJ/mol. However, for molecules containing functional groups that form part of the main GROMOS force field[8] the AUE is 3-4 kJ/mol.
  • The systematic nature of the deviations suggests that it will be possible to greatly improve the overall performance of the ATB by optimizing the parameters for a small number of non-optimal atom types.


    1. Schmidt MW, Baldridge KK, Boatz JA, Elbert ST, Gordon MS, Jensen JH, Koseki S, Matsunaga N, Nguyen KA, Su S, Windus TL, Dupuis M, Montgomery JA (1993) General atomic and molecular electronic structure system. J Comput Chem 14 (11):1347-1363.
    2. Berendsen HJC, Postma JPM, van Gunsteren WF, Hermans J (1981) Interaction models for water in relation to protein hydration. In: Pullman B (ed) Intermolecular Forces. Springer Netherlands, The Netherlands, pp 331-342. doi:10.1007/978-94-015-7658-1_21
    3. Schmid N, Christ CD, Christen M, Eichenberger AP, van Gunsteren WF (2012) Architecture, implementation and parallelisation of the GROMOS software for biomolecular simulation. Comput Phys Commun 183 (4):890-903.
    4. Koziara KB, Stroet M, Malde AK, Mark AE (2013) Testing and validation of the Automated Topology Builder (ATB) version 2.0: Prediction of hydration freee enthalpies. J Comput Aided Mol Des [in press].
    5. Geballe MT, Skillman AG, Nicholls A, Guthrie JP, Taylor PJ (2010) The SAMPL2 blind prediction challenge: introduction and overview. J Comput Aided Mol Des 24 (4):259-279.
    6. Nicholls A, Mobley DL, Guthrie JP, Chodera JD, Bayly CI, Cooper MD, Pande VS (2008) Predicting small-molecule solvation free energies: an informal blind test for computational chemistry. J Med Chem 51 (4):769-779.
    7. Guthrie JP (2009) A blind challenge for computational solvation free energies: introduction and overview. J Phys Chem B 113 (14):4501-4507.
    8. Oostenbrink C, Villa A, Mark AE, van Gunsteren WF (2004) A biomolecular force field based on the free enthalpy of hydration and solvation: The GROMOS force-field parameter sets 53A5 and 53A6. J Comput Chem 25 (13):1656-1676.

About ATB

Overview

The ATB and Repository is intended to facilitate the development of molecular force fields for Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations of biomolecular systems. Applications include:

  • The study of biomolecule:ligand complexes
  • Free energy calculations
  • Structure-based drug design
  • The refinement of x-ray crystal complexes

This site provides:

  • A repository for building blocks and interaction parameter files for molecules described using GROMOS force fields.
  • An automated builder to help generate building blocks for novel molecules, compatible with the GROMOS 53A6 force field and in formats appropriate for the GROMACS, GROMOS simulation packages and CNS, Phenix, CCP4 and Refmac5 X-ray refinement packages.
  • Refined geometries for molecules within the repository.
  • Equilibrated starting coordinates for a range of biologically important systems.

Required Input:

  • A coordinate file in Protein Data Bank (PDB) format (including all hydrogen atoms).
  • A connectivity record in PDB format listing all interatomic bonds.
  • The net charge on the molecule.

Output Provided:

  • Building block files (all atom and united atom).
  • Interaction parameter files for the corresponding force field.
  • Optimized geometries (all atom and united atom).

The building block and interaction parameter files are provided in a range of formats that can be used to generate the appropriate topology files.

The ATB Pipeline

The topology builder uses a knowledge-based approach in combination with QM calculations to select parameters consistent with a given force field.

The molecule is initially optimised at the HF/STO-3G (or AM1 or PM3) level then re-optimised at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory in implicit solvent (water). The initial charges are estimated by fitting the electrostatic potential using Kollmann-Singh scheme. The Hessian matrix is calculated.

The topology is constructed as follows:

  1. A template building block is generated based on the connectivity records including all possible bonds, angles and dihedral angles.
  2. Atom types and mass types are assigned based on the original PDB file.
  3. An initial list of 1-2 and 1-3 exclusions is generated based on connectivity.
  4. Initial charges are assigned based on QM charges or similarity to known groups.
  5. Charge groups are assigned based on atom connectivity and initial partial charges.
  6. Atoms are reordered based on charge groups.
  7. Bond and angle types are assigned based on (1) atom types, (2) bond lengths or bond angles in the QM optimised geometry and (3) matching force constants derived from the Hessian matrix. Multiple options are listed in ambiguous cases and new types introduced if required.
  8. Redundant proper dihedrals are removed. The multiplicity is determined based on connectivity and substituents. The phase shift is determined by requiring that the optimised lie close to a minimum in the dihedral potential. The force constant is selected based on a combination of atom type and the difference between the QM and classical Hessians. In ambiguous cases multiple options are presented.
  9. Aromatic rings and planar groups are identified based on atom type, connectivity and the optimised geometry.
  10. Improper dihedrals are assigned.
  11. Additional 1-4 exclusions are introduced into aromatic systems.
  12. The charges on atoms in equivalent chemical environments connected by 1, 2, 3, and 4 bonds are averaged.
  13. Any symmetry within the molecules is detected and the charges averaged.
  14. Charge scaling is applied to ensure charges are compatible with the chosen parameter set.
  15. A united atom topology building block is generated from the all atom topology building block by (1) collapsing the charges on the non-polar hydrogen atoms onto the heavy atoms to which they are attached, (2) introducing improper dihedrals to maintain chirality, (3) regenerating exclusion lists and (4) reassigning atoms types as required.
  16. The final files are then converted into a range of formats and the original coordinate files reordered to match that of the building blocks.

Release Notes
Version 2.1 (Sep 14)
Version 2.1 (Aug 14)
Version 2.0 (Sep 13)
Version 2.0 (Jun 14)
Version 1.2 (Dec 12)
Version 1.1 (Aug 12)
Version 1.0 (Oct 11)

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the many people who have provided feedback during the development phase of this project, in particular, Wilfred van Gunsteren, Philippe Hünenberger, Volker Knecht, Alexandre Bonvin, Bruno Horta, Samuel Genheden and MD group at The University of Queensland, Australia

We would also like to thank Peter Ertl for providing us with the JSME molecular builder.

Useful Links

Software and tools:

  • GROMOS home page.
  • GROMACS home page.
  • Vienna-PTM a resource for generating protein post-translational modification structures for use in molecular dynamics simulations.
  • PDBeChem a dictionary of chemical components referred to in PDB entries.
  • Phenix a software suite for the automated determination of macromolecular structures using X-ray crystallography.
  • CCP4 an integrated suite of programs that allows researchers to determine macromolecular structures by X-ray crystallography.

Conferences:

Related Literature

ATB papers:

  • Malde AK, Zuo L, Breeze M, Stroet M, Poger D, Nair PC, Oostenbrink C, Mark AE.
    An Automated force field Topology Builder (ATB) and repository: version 1.0.
    Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2011, 7(12), 4026-4037.
    DOI: 10.1021/ct200196m

  • Canzar S, El-Kebir M, Pool R, Elbassioni K, Malde AK, Mark AE, Geerke DP, Stougie L, Klau GW.
    Charge Group Partitioning in Biomolecular Simulation.
    Journal of Computational Biology, 2013, 20, 188-198.
    DOI:10.1089/cmb.2012.0239

  • Koziara KB, Stroet M, Malde AK, Mark AE.
    Testing and validation of the Automated Topology Builder (ATB) version 2.0: prediction of hydration free enthalpies.
    Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, 2014.
    DOI:10.1007/s10822-014-9713-7

GROMOS papers:

  • Schmid N, Christ CD, Christen M, Eichenberger AP and van Gunsteren WF.
    Architecture, implementation and parallelisation of the GROMOS software for biomolecular simulation.
    Computer Physics Communications, 2012, 183, 890-903.
    DOI:10.1016/j.cpc.2011.12.014

  • Eichenberger AP, Allision JR, Dolenc J, Geerke DP, Horta BAC, Meier K, Oostenbrink C, Schmid N, Steiner D, Wang DQ and van Gunsteren WF.
    GROMOS plus plus Software for the Analysis of Biomolecular Simulation Trajectories.
    Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2011, 7, 3379-3390.
    DOI:10.1021/ct2003622

GROMOS 54A7:

  • Schmid N, Eichenberger AP, Choutko A, Riniker S, Winger M, Mark AE and van Gunsteren WF.
    Definition and testing of the GROMOS force-field versions 54A7 and 54B7.
    European Biophysics Journal, 2011, 40, 843-856.
    DOI: 10.1007/s00249-011-0700-9

GROMOS 53A6:

  • Oostenbrink C, Villa A, Mark AE and van Gunsteren WF.
    A biomolecular force field based on the free enthalpy of hydration and solvation: The GROMOS force-field parameter sets 53A5 and 53A6.
    Journal of Computational Chemistry, 2004, 25, 1656-1676.
    DOI: 10.1002/jcc.20090

GROMOS Lipid Forcefields:

  • Poger D, Mark AE and van Gunsteren WF.
    A new force field for simulating phosphatidylcholine bilayers.
    Journal of Computational Chemistry, 2010, 31, 1117-1125.
    DOI: 10.1002/jcc.21396

  • Poger D and Mark AE.
    On the Validation of Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Saturated and cis-Monounsaturated Phosphatidylcholine Lipid Bilayers: A Comparison with Experiment.
    Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2010, 6, 325-336.
    DOI: 10.1021/ct900487a

GROMOS Sugar Forcefields:

  • Lins RD and Hünenberger PH.
    A new GROMOS force field for Hexopyranose-based carbohydrates.
    Journal of Computational Chemistry, 2005, 26, 1400-1412.
    DOI:10.1002/jcc.20275

  • Hansen HS and Hünenberger PH. A Reoptimized GROMOS Force Field for Hexopyranose-Based Carbohydrates Accounting for the Relative Free Energies of Ring Conformers, Anomers, Epimers, Hydroxymethyl Rotamers, and Glycosidic Linkage Conformers.
    Journal of Computational Chemistry, 2011, 32, 998-1032.
    DOI:10.1002/jcc.21675

Collaborators

FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

How can I find an existing molecule on the ATB?

Under the "Existing Molecules" tab on the ATB there is a search utility under "Match" a field. One can search for a molecule using a molecular formula, IUPAC name, common name or Canonical SMILES. The easiest way to search is using a molecular formula as the primary search criteria and select the appropriate molecule from either IUPAC name and/or Canonical SMILES.

Can I submit a ligand (heteromolecule) molecule as is from a PDB file?

No. The ligand molecules in most PDB files only contain HEAVY ATOMS. The complete ligand molecule (with all HYDROGEN atoms and correct tautomeric and protonation states as well as its formal charge) must be submitted to the ATB. Only then isit possible for the ATB to generate a complete topology file. A range of programs such as ArgusLab or Avogadro can be used to edit the hydrogen atoms in a ligand molecule.

The ATB only generates a complete topology for molecules containing <40 atoms. How can I generate a reliable topology for a larger molecule?

Although the ATB only generates a complete topology for molecules containing <40 atoms, it can be used to create an initial template for a larger ligand molecule. This template contains all atom-type information and bonded parameters. In some cases, initial estimates of the charges may also be given. Before use, these templates need to be examined and where necessary edited manually. In order to obtain more precise parameters, a larger molecule can be broken into smaller fragments and the parameters from these fragments can be used to complete the template of the larger molecule.

The 2D sketch of the molecule appears to be incorrect.

The 2D sketch is automatically generated with OpenBabel which makes assumptions about the protonation state of the molecule.
To visualize the molecule in the database select "Show Structure" from the "Select Output" table.

How do I use the JSME builder?

1. For those of you who don't know much about JSME and JSMol, JSME on the left hand side is 2D molecule builder and JSMol on the right hand side is a molecule viewer in 3D.

2. The function of buttons on JSME molecule builder is straightforward, but it is still worth mentioning that the "white rectangular" shaped button is used to wipe out the molecule to rebuild from the start."+/-" labeled button can add and move hydrogen atoms to create ions. The the pike-shaped button works as chirality specifier. For more information about how to use JSME, please find in manual.

3. To submit a molecule, you need to click on the pink button to feed and visualize the structure in Jmol before clicking submit to generate the structure in PDB format and close the popup window.

How can I generate a topology for a peptide/protein or polysaccharide?

The ATB is designed to generate the force field topology for a ligand molecule (up to ~100 atoms). To generate larger polymeric molecules such as proteins or polysacharides there are specific tools (make_top in GROMOS and pdb2gmx in GROMACS) available to combine building block files containing individual amino acids or sugars to generate the complete topologies for a larger molecule. These building blocks are highly optimized and should be used in preference to the topologies generated directly by the ATB.

Can I submit a ligand molecule containing a metal atoms such as metal:ligand complexes?

At present, the ATB has a limited capacity to handle metal ions. Currently, the GROMOS force field does not include paramaters for transition metals other than for Cu+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Fe2+. If a molecule is submitted that contains other metal ions, the ATB will terminate after the generation of the initial template topology. To generate a complete topology file for a metal:ligand complex, each ligand should be submitted separately to the ATB. The parameters for the individual ligands can then be transferred to the template of the complete complete complex. The charges on the metal ion and any changes to the ligand topology would need to be added manually. We recommended to use ab initio quantum mechanical or density functional theory methods to study metal ion coordination in detail.

How do I cite the Automated Topology Builder (ATB) and Repository?

The following paper describes the ATB and its validation:

Malde AK, Zuo L, Breeze M, Stroet M, Poger D, Nair PC, Oostenbrink C, Mark AE. An Automated force field Topology Builder (ATB) and repository: version 1.0. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2011, 7(12), 4026-4037. DOI: 10.1021/ct200196m

For ATB version 2.0 topologies please also site:

Canzar S, El-Kebir M, Pool R, Elbassioni K, Malde AK, Mark AE, Geerke DP, Stougie L, Klau GW. Charge Group Partitioning in Biomolecular Simulation. Journal of Computational Biology, 2013, 20, 188-198. DOI:10.1089/cmb.2012.0239

Koziara KB, Stroet M, Malde AK, Mark AE. Testing and validation of the Automated Topology Builder (ATB) version 2.0: prediction of hydration free enthalpies. Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, 2014. DOI: 10.1007/s10822-014-9713-7

The following papers describe the various versions of the GROMOS force field used in the ATB.

  1. Oostenbrink C, Villa A, Mark AE and van Gunsteren WF. A biomolecular force field based on the free enthalpy of hydration and solvation: The GROMOS force-field parameter sets 53A5 and 53A6. Journal of Computational Chemistry, 2004, 25, 1656-1676. DOI: 10.1002/jcc.20090
  2. Poger D, Mark AE and van Gunsteren WF. A new force field for simulating phosphatidylcholine bilayers Journal of Computational Chemistry, 2010, 31, 1117-1125. DOI: 10.1002/jcc.21396
  3. Poger D and Mark AE. On the Validation of Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Saturated and cis-Monounsaturated Phosphatidylcholine Lipid Bilayers: A Comparison with Experiment. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, 2010, 6, 325-336. DOI: 10.1021/ct900487a
  4. Schmid N, Eichenberger AP, Choutko A, Riniker S, Winger M, Mark AE and van Gunsteren WF. Definition and testing of the GROMOS force-field versions 54A7 and 54B7. European Biophysics Journal, 2011, 40, 843-856. DOI: 10.1007/s00249-011-0700-9